Tennis - Wikipedia
Date: 18 February COMPETITION FORMAT AND SPECIFIC REGULATIONS The Table Tennis European Games competition will consist of four events: A team match consists of two singles matches followed by a doubles. General Guidelines for Tournament Officials Except for professionals and players under age 28 on the day before the The qualifying date for entry in all T&RA age-limited tournaments shall be the day before the start of each tournament. All the basic rules for scoring sets in tennis. Under this rule, once the score reaches six-games-all (it was originally eight-all but reduced to six in ), a tie .
A player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must travel past the net into the other players' court. A ball that hits the net during a rally is still considered a legal return as long as it crosses into the opposite side of the court. The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point. The server then moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new point.
For software term, see Breakpoint. Game, set, match Game A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving.
A game is won by the first player to have won at least four points in total and at least two points more than the opponent. The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to tennis: If at least three points have been scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at 40 apiece, the score is not called out as "", but rather as "deuce".
If at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is "advantage" for the player in the lead. During informal games, "advantage" can also be called "ad in" or "van in" when the serving player is ahead, and "ad out" or "van out" when the receiving player is ahead. The scoreboard of a match between Andy Roddick and Cyril Saulnier.
The score of a tennis game during play is always read with the serving player's score first. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the point count e. At the end of a game, the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall score. Set A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria. Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent.
If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played. If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7—5. If the trailing player wins the game tying the set 6—6 a tie-break is played.
A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7—6.
A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA.
The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e. Match A match consists of a sequence of sets. The outcome is determined through a best of three or five sets system.
On the professional circuit, men play best-of-five-set matches at all four Grand Slam tournaments, Davis Cup, and the final of the Olympic Games and best-of-three-set matches at all other tournaments, while women play best-of-three-set matches at all tournaments. The first player to win two sets in a best-of-three, or three sets in a best-of-five, wins the match. In these cases, sets are played indefinitely until one player has a two-game lead, leading to some remarkably long matches.
In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match with the well-known phrase "Game, set, match" followed by the winning person's or team's name. Special point terms Game point A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game.
The terminology is extended to sets set pointmatches match pointand even championships championship point. For example, if the player who is serving has a score of love, the player has a triple game point triple set point, etc.
Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play. Break point A break point occurs if the receiver, not the serverhas a chance to win the game with the next point. Break points are of particular importance because serving is generally considered advantageous, with servers being expected to win games in which they are serving.
A receiver who has one score of 30—40 or advantagetwo score of 15—40 or three score of love consecutive chances to win the game has break point, double break point or triple break point, respectively. If the receiver does, in fact, win their break point, the game is awarded to the receiver, and the receiver is said to have converted their break point. If the receiver fails to win their break point it is called a failure to convert.
Winning break points, and thus the game, is also referred to as breaking serve, as the receiver has disrupted, or broken the natural advantage of the server. If in the following game the previous server also wins a break point it is referred to as breaking back. Except where tie-breaks apply, at least one break of serve is required to win a set. Rule variations See also: Types of tennis match No ad From 'No advantage'.
BBC Sport - Tennis - Scoring basics: sets
Scoring method created by Jimmy Van Alen. The first player or doubles team to win four points wins the game, regardless of whether the player or team is ahead by two points. When the game score reaches three points each, the receiver chooses which side of the court advantage court or deuce court the service is to be delivered on the seventh and game-deciding point.
A pro set is first to 8 or 10 games by a margin of two games, instead of first to 6 games. A point tie-break is usually played when the score is 8—8 or 10— These are often played with no-ad scoring.
Match tie-break This is sometimes played instead of a third set. A match tie-break also called super tie-break is played like a regular tie-break, but the winner must win ten points instead of seven. Fast4 Fast4 is a shortened format that offers a "fast" alternative, with four points, four games and four rules: Another, however informal, tennis format is called Canadian doubles.
This involves three players, with one person playing a doubles team. The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does not use the alleys when executing a shot.
The scoring is the same as a regular game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body. As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a match, with the singles player always serving. Scoring styles vary, but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game, with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve and the doubles team each taking one if they break serve. Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as people who require a wheelchair for mobility.
An extra bounce is permitted. This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and able-bodied matches. It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a wheelchair player and an able-bodied player referred to as "one-up, one-down"or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied player. In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the wheelchair users only. Official tennis In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire usually referred to as the umpirewho sits in a raised chair to one side of the court.
The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults.
There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made. This system was called " Cyclops ". The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated question of law but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact.
If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision This would only happen in Davis Cup or Fed Cup matches, not at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral country is in the chair.
They have no adjudicative role. In rare events e. The umpire may consider their statements when making a decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make their own calls, trusting each other to be honest. This is the case for many school and university level matches. The referee or referee's assistant, however, can be called on court at a player's request, and the referee or assistant may change a player's call. In unofficiated matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is sure that the ball is out.
Junior tennis Main article: Junior tennis In tennis, a junior is a player under 18 who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian. Players on the main adult tour who are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments.
Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit. The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. Inthe ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings singles and doubles into one combined tally.
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Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.
Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age. To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system. Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play.
Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions. Match play Convention dictates that two players shake hands at the end of a match Continuity A tennis match is intended to be continuous. In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.
Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit. Ball changes Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.
Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play usually due to rainthen the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.
On-court coaching A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis during a match. Tennis shots A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: Grip Tennis A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a match. The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot.
Players use various grips during play, including the Continental The "Handshake Grip"Eastern Can be either semi-eastern or full eastern. Usually used for backhands. Most players change grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip. Serve tennis Paraguayan stamp depicting a Martina Navratilova service motion.
A serve or, more formally, a "service" in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it usually near the apex of its trajectory into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net.
The serve may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a rarity. There can also be a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't prepared. Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and kick American twist serve.
A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness.
If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise. Tournament officials have officially assigned you and your opponent a court to play a match in the first round in a tournament. It is time to put on your 'game face' and prepare to battle. Prior to initiating game play, competitors typically stretch, warm-up and practice a few ground strokes, volleys, and serves. This is your time to work out some last minute 'kinks' and more importantly to scout out the competition's strengths and weaknesses.
The time limit to warm-up is generally determined by the competitors unless it is stated by tournament officials or written in the tennis rules for that tournament. Although not enforced, the pregame warm-up's time limit must not be abused and should be limited to a maximum of 10 minutes.
Time to get the 'ball' rolling. At some point prior to game play, you and your opponent must determine To determine the privilege of choosing one of these options first, tennis competitors either The winner of the toss or spin then has the choice of either The competitor who loses the toss or spin then determines the other option.
It is important to note that the winner of the toss or spin can opt out and obligate the opponent to decide on an option first and then determine the second option. Key Server Serving Tips To initiate game play, the server stands between center mark and singles sideline just behind the baseline to the right side of his or her end on the court. The server serves not just the first point, but the entire game.
The server receives two attempts per point played to serve by tossing up the tennis ball and striking it diagonally over the net into the correct service court on the receiver's side of the court. If the server steps on or over the baseline when serving, by rule this is considered a 'foot fault' and the server loses that attempt to serve whether it is the first or second serve attempt for that point.
If the ball tips the net during a serve and lands inside the intended service court's boundaries, that is considered a 'let' and the server earns another chance to serve. Consequently, if the ball tips the net during a serve and lands outside the intended service court's boundaries, that is considered a 'fault' and the server loses that chance to serve.
After each point is played out, the server rotates from the right side of the center mark to the left side of the center mark and continues the rotation for each point until the game is over.Tennis Guide: Rules
Key Receiver Returning Tips To receive a serve, the receiver has the option of standing anywhere on his or her side of the court. Typically though, the receiver is positioned behind the service line and as far back as behind the baseline positioned diagonally from the side where the server is positioned to serve.
There is one important tennis rule the receiver must follow. When the ball is served the receiver must allow the ball to bounce before returning the serve and playing out that point. This is the only time during tennis that a competitor must allow the ball to bounce prior to playing out the point. If the receiver returns the serve before the ball bounces, the server earns the point regardless of where the ball lands on the court. After each point is played out, the receiver rotates from the right side of the center mark to the left side of the center mark and continues the rotation for each point until the game is over.