Common Greywater Mistakes and Preferred Practices
If you install, clean, or repair septic systems or if you haul and dispose of solid waste from If we don't receive your payment by the due date, we add late fees. Dementia Care Dos & Don'ts: Dealing with Dementia Behavior Communication difficulties can be one of the most upsetting aspects of caring for someone with Alzheimer's . infection at the L-4 in his back (Discitis) and that he was septic. Since that date she has fallen over 15 times to point where she. inspections and dates of pumping, any work or repair you have had done on the system. If you don't already have a file on your system, you should. . Read and follow the Dos and Don'ts additive for septic tanks to speed decomposition of.
At the moment it is just getting too much. With little knollage of the disease, realized the best thing for Dad was to mostly agree, to keep away from arguments. Agree with him weather rite or wrong. Just to keep the peace.The Do's And Don'ts of Speed Dating. How to Speed Date. Speed Dating Advice & Tips.
It dawned on me recently, that our family is essentially dysfunctional. I had only just realized that recently. Dues to the actions of my brothers, particularly one. Dad is not the same person that we grew up with. There are glimpses of Dad inside. Some days are good and well… Typically Dad criticizes others that help him. Where strangers are good people to him. But he is getting worse. Dad normally was a generous person, but that seems to be disappearing. But no payment, little gratitude and not even a Thank You is received.
Then a week or two, the same all over again now my-own house is falling into disrepair, While Dad needs more. Recently and similar had happened previous. But it getting worse.
She answers the phone. Twice a day, 3 times a week. Dad needed help is sorting a bill with the Chemist a Fictitious bill, in his head. I said I can help I suppose, the paused while dealing with a car park. Before I could complete my speaking. Stopping me communicating further, I was trying to estimate time for the return trip to him. I get silence from Dad, then argumentative displeasure, as I have not answered him. So I became a little more forceful, to allow me a word in.
He cracked the shits and it was all my fault.
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I still returned to Dad, to try and help. But he cracked the shits and did not want the help. I had stopped what I planned to do. Went out of my way to help and only got attitude. I understand Dad cannot help himself. But my own life and issues. On top dealing with Dad becomes a bit much. So long story short, I went home. As he did not want my help, he was in a mood that I could not stay with.
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Otherwise we would have sat in total silence except the TV being too loudscowling at each other. It was best I went home, as Dad had now put me in such a mood. At lease my brother is there with him. So now I guess that he is Dads best friend rather than the usual Whipping-Boy. Dementia is such a hard thing. As all people are different so is this disease. Eventually no matter the intention.
There are no winners. Lucy Simpson My mother is being moved to a secure facility in a few days as she keeps getting into cabs and giving an address. Just a made up address. Does anyone have any suggestions from experience?
We have chosen a facility near us that seems excellent and caring. So why are the first days so tough? James Can I want to let the world know about Doctor Sam the Great spell caster that brought back my wife to me when i thought all hope was lost.
Doctor Sam used his powerful spell to put a smile on my face by bringing back my woman with his spell, at first i thought i was dreaming when my wife came back to me on her knees begging me to forgive her and accept her back and even since then she loves me more than i ever expected so i made a vow to my self the i will let the World know about Doctor Sam because he is a God on earth.
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I have a question for everyone. My Mom seems half way normal during the day timebut you can set a clock by her. When watching a show, think it is real. She was watching an old John Wayne western and came in my room thinking Indians were attacking the house. She wont go to sleep till almost daylight. So I only get about 3 to 4 hours sleep. Afraid to sleep when she is awake. That way, their was no way to deny it. Charlene Gayle Mcgee Everyone is not blessed with a perfect Mother.
She was to busy with my older brother and her Men. I was an accident with a married man she was fooling around with. She reminded me of that face all my life. Now I have given up all my savings and life to care for her. Not out of her love for me, but because of the morals that my Grandmother taught me.
She made me promise, on her death bed, to see that Mom would be taken care of in the end. Because she knew she would be alone. Dementia care-giving will eat you up alive.
We are at a turning point for sure.
Aaron I am so glad I found this. Over the past 2 years, its gotten worse. She has accused me of stealing her hearing aide, throwing away her keys, moving her purses, housing someone in the basement, trying to poison her, throwing away her bills and abusing my dog.
She even called the police in me when she thought I tried to lock her out if the house. Another time, when she thought I took something, she was in my room with a bat. I had to wrestle it out of her hands. She kept slamming doors, yelling at me. Today she says I took her bras? What makes it worse is that her daughter wont do anything about it.
I dont know what to do. I feel so lost, and frustrated with her side of the family. They barely come out to see her, but I am her enemy. Her son never comes out. Her youngest, my mother, died of stage 4 cancer 4 years ago.
I just have a few more debts to pay off before I can get my own place. I hate to say it, but I dont think I can ever talk to her, nor her side of the family again. The fewer little anaerobic corners and pockets the better. Manually distributed grey water can be stored for the day to allow for manual distribution all in one session.
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Exceptions Highly treated grey water for example, after a septic tank and constructed wetland can supposedly be stored for up to a month before it goes septic, depending on the BOD and temperature. Surge tanks, which absorb peak flows say from a bathtub and washing machine discharging simultaneously then let them out immediately at a reasonable rate are OK. Really cold grey water takes longer than 24 hours to stink, though I'd have to have a really persuasive reason to want to rely on this for the design of a system.
Grey water can be filtered effectively by settling in a septic tank, but then it will stink to high heaven and must be handled like clarified blackwater from a septic tank. In this case, the longer it sits in the septic tank the better lower suspended solids and BOD. Others fret about distributing grey water under nine inches of soil without disinfecting. Some people worry about eating fruit which contains molecules from biodegraded dish soap, forgetting that they imbibe larger traces of dish soap directly with every glass of water and plate of food.
Preferred practice Each user has to find their own comfort point on the paranoia vs recklessness continuum, and each community has to determine the outer limits of recklessness it will tolerate. Grey water reuse poses a very mild health threat in overdeveloped countries. Despite all sorts of grievous misuse brought on in part by lack of useful regulatory guidancethere has not been a single documented case of grey water transmitted illness in the US.
At the same time, it's definitely poor form to construct pathways for infecting people into your design, and totally unnecessary. Proper handling using the same principles on page 4 can eliminate the health threat from grey water in third world countries. Here's an overview of health concerns and what to do about them, from Create an Oasis with Grey Water: In theory, this water could produce fruit and green relief in a sanitary way.
Unfortunately, extremely high salt concentration from hand washing with small amounts of hand-carried water and generous amounts of "Fab one-Shot" from little day-glo packets renders this resource unusable; even though it is year-round water in a desert, not even weeds grow from it. A enlightened soap factory with a line of biocompatible cleaners and a suitable marketing plan could dramatically transform the colonia environment, exchanging fetid, mucky streets for thriving, shade, and fruit-providing large trees.
All grey water safety guidelines stem from these two principles: Here are examples of applying these principles to correct possible problems: Direct contact or consumption. Use gloves when cleaning grey water filters. Droplets from sprinklers can evaporate to leave harmful microorganisms suspended in the air, waiting for someone to breathe them.
Direct application to foliage can leave untreated microorganisms on surfaces. Fruit trees are acceptable if grey water is applied only to the roots.
Contamination of surface water. If grey water does not percolate through the soil, it can flow into creeks or other waterways untreated. Don't apply grey water to saturated soils. Apply grey water intermittently so that it soaks in and soil can aerate between watering. In general, contained grey water application at least 50 feet from a creek or lake is not a problem. It is all but impossible to contaminate groundwater with a grey water system.
However, property owners with wells should not irrigate with grey water any closer to the well than county regulations allow for a septic tank leachfield. Biological purification does not usually remove industrial toxins. Toxins either will be absorbed by plants or will pollute groundwater. Many household cleaners are composed of chemicals that are unsuitable for introduction into a biological system. Divert water containing those you can't avoid to poison the sewer or septic instead.
Grey water systems are safest when using water that is fairly clean initially. Grey water should not contain water used to launder soiled diapers or by anyone with an infectious disease; in both cases, grey water should be diverted to the septic tank or sewer. Also, don't store grey water; use it immediately, before bacteria multiply. Finally, if you are having a party where 50 people are going to use a system designed for two, consider diverting grey water to the sewer for the night.
Treatment before irrigation Plants and soil, especially the upper, most biologically active layer of soil, are fantastically effective for wastewater treatment. Pretreatment is often presented as an essential element in a grey water system, when in fact it may be more pointless than treating your wastewater before sending it down the sewer.
Plants and soil are fine with funky, chunky water; it is pipes and people who may have a hard time with it. Pretreatment is only necessary to overcome limitations of the distribution plumbing to handle funky water. With a properly designed system, even straight kitchen sink water very high suspended solids can be reliably and safely distributed with no filtration whatsoever photo, page Preferred practice For simple residential systems, the preferred alternative to pretreatment is to 1 design the distribution system so it can handle funky water, in particular, high levels of suspended solids, and 2 design the distribution system so human or animal contact is unlikely to occur before the water has passed slowly through healthy topsoil i.
Distribution can be fully subsurface see page 13 and pages in the Builder's Grey Water Guide. These requirements can be fulfilled adequately by several other systems where grey water daylights for two inches before disappearing into mulch filled basins.
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Exceptions The systems described above are restricted to the use of large diameter, drain-type distribution plumbing, which is inherently less efficient than, say, drip irrigation plumbing.
For small-scale systems, it is generally best to eat this efficiency loss, or go to a more labor-intensive, less sanitary system like bucketing. For larger flows, say several hundred gallons a day or more, and a like amount of irrigation need, it can be very economical to pre-treat grey water to the point that it can be distributed by more or less standard irrigation hardware. A laundry pipe runs out the formal drive of an estate in the foothills above Los Angeles, and discharges into the gutter, in which it runs for a hundred yards before running into a gulch.
Discharge of grey water directly into natural waters or hardscapes You'd think this would be more rare, because it is so obviously wrong. Preferred practice Almost anything would be preferred. Just dumping the water on the surface of the soil is a big improvement over dumping it in natural waters or impermeable surfaces. Dumping it into a mulch-filled basin would be a vast improvement. Exceptions When the receiving body of water has sufficient capacity to purify the water, and there is no other reasonable alternative.
Sailboats on the open ocean are the only example which comes to mind. Even if you are in the middle of a vast wilderness next to a large river, you can just take a few steps back and rinse the shampoo onto soil, which will purify it before it goes into the river.
Use of grey water for irrigating lawns The only proven safe and reliable way of irrigating lawns with grey water is through underground drip tubing supplied by a backwashing sand filter type system; far beyond what most residences are likely to install. Unfortunately, turf accounts for the bulk of the irrigation need in the typical landscape, and lawn grey watering is by far the most prevalent violation of common sense grey water safety rules.
This is awkward to write. Do I criminalize thousands of grey water users who see no harm in what they are doing, or do I condone a marginal activity? If the lawn receives traffic, by applying grey water to the surface you are short circuiting the all-important purification step see health rules pages 4, 8inviting direct contact with untreated grey water and the possibility of transmitting pathogens. The likelihood of transmitting disease is small it would be laughed off in most developing countries but it exists.
If the lawn doesn't receive traffic, then it is less risky to irrigate it with grey water but it shouldn't be a lawn in the first place; the only legitimate reason to have one of these resource hogs is that they are more fun to play on than, say, a gravel and cactus garden. A better solution would be to replace the un-trafficked lawn with something else and irrigate that with grey water, if it needs irrigation at all.
Besides the health issue, grey watering a lawn is a pain in the rear. The system almost universally used is a hose from the washing machine or house plumbing which is moved around. Since the water has to be applied within the root system to benefit the plant, you have to move this hose to numerous locations in a very small grid, as compared to say, a large fruit tree, which would benefit from water left to dump anywhere within an area of hundreds of square feet.
Perforated pipe under the lawn will have efficiency in the single digits, and leave some areas completely dry.
Common Grey Water Errors and Preferred Practices
Preferred practice We suggest that you replace most of your turf with something else, replace what's left with a water-conserving grass such as Tall Fescue, watered with the freshwater you save from using grey water elsewhere, or just let your lawn go dormant when there's not enough rain to sustain it. Use of grey water for irrigating vegetables The primary reason not to use grey water on veggies is concern about transmitting disease see page 4.
Some people use grey water on veggies anyway. Preferred practice If your goal is to just get rid of grey water responsibly and irrigation is not needed there is no reason to put it on food crops. If your goal is water reuse to lower overall water consumption, chances are that you will have more irrigation demand than you have grey water supply. In this case, use grey water first on ornamentals, then on fruit trees, and then use the fresh water you saved on veggies. Exceptions A probable exception: In the past I have categorically recommended against using grey water for irrigating vegetable gardens.
As a certain fraction of grey water users have always and will always do it anyway, I've decided to illuminate the boundary between responsible resource reuse and reckless public health threat in this area. Also, after irrigating veggies with grey water myself, I understand the attraction better. We have a vast drip irrigation system, but it does not adapt well to irrigating veggies. The hardware is not that great; sprayers have very uneven coverage, they put the water on top of mulch instead of under, and you have to build the bed to match the spray pattern, except that wind blows this pattern completely off course.
Lines with emitters in line are super expensive, and have clogged rapidly from filtered potable water. Additionally, I can't just hook up to one of the other irrigation zones; the veggies need about ten minutes every day, instead of, say an hour and a half three times a week. Also, during weeding, seeding, transplanting, growth and harvest the irrigation need varies tremendously.
Veggies also are much more sensitive to daily even hourly changes in weather than fruit trees. Even if I wanted to pay for it, our small community water system doesn't really have this water to spare during the hot, dry summer months. Hand watering is the obvious alternative, and if I'm hand watering anyway, why not use hoses or buckets of free grey water, instead of fresh water which costs me nearly a penny a gallon?
With the grey water systems I recommend there are several layers of protection, each capable of preventing the spread of infectious microorganisms on its own. When irrigating veggies with grey water the only possible protection is from 1 not happening to have anything nasty in the water, 2 not splashing grey water on the edible portions, 3 washing veggies, 4 cooking and 5not getting sick even if you eat something nasty.
Each of these offers tenuous protection. Additionally, grey watering vegetables is often manual, which inevitably results in some direct contact with grey water. If you're going to engage in this reckless practice, pay attention to what's happening with this slim margin of safety.
If anyone in your household has an infectious disease, protection 1 is not operative and you should stop using grey water on veggies. For 2exercise care in applying grey water, and give crops which are splashable and eaten raw a wide berth, even more so as harvest time approaches e. Always wash grey watered raw veggies with soap, iodine, or equivalent. Try not to splash too much, and wash your hands after grey watering this extra wash water has to be considered in the irrigation efficiency for this system.
As a last resort, hope for not getting sick even if you eat something nasty. I'm reluctant to mention this factor, but it seems to work in much of the Third World, where people catch plenty of nasty diseases but still not as much as you'd think. These two giant coast live oak trees toppled, with dry season grey water application as the suspected culprit dry season irrigation promotes root disease in these trees.
Mysteriously, oaks with grey water applied to them across the street don't seem any worse for the wear. Irrigation of plants which can't take it or don't need it Certain plants cannot take grey water, and certain plants can't take too much of any kind of water. Acid-loving plants tend to have a hard time with grey water, and certain plants which are native to dry areas have a hard time handling any irrigation in the dry season.
Also, some cultivated plants have problems with soggy conditions. This problem is not a commonly encountered one. Preferred practice Avoid irrigating plants which don't want the water, and design your system so it doesn't create soggy conditions for plants that can't handle it.
A related problem is irrigating plants which don't need it. For example, greywater is good, and native plants are good, so why not do both? Well, California natives don't need much water in the summer, so it's a waste of a resource that could, for example, irrigate fruit trees.
Distribution of grey water through perforated pipe or other system where you can't tell where the water is going There are two problems with distribution of grey water through perforated pipe: One, it will clog Why doesn't perforated pipe clog in septic tank leachfields? Because a septic tank is highly effective for removing suspended solids. Suspended solids are plentiful in grey water, even after the crude types of filtration sometimes attempted in home-brew systems, and these will eventually clog the pipe.
If that doesn't clog it first, root infiltration will. If the pipe is big enough, and the grey water clean enough, it may take so long to clog that the durability is acceptable, but this is rare.
A rarely used bathroom sink going into ten feet of four-inch pipe in gravely soil might last several years before failing.
Laundry water will quickly clog almost any sized system. Two, it is terribly unmanageable for irrigation Any system where you don't know where the water is going is all but unmanageable for irrigation. This is only a problem if you are trying to reuse the water, not if you are just trying to get rid of it.
The problem with any system where there are emitters lined up in series like holes in perforated pipe is that the majority of the water will dump out the first few holes, or the lowest few holes, depending if the flow is low or high. Then these holes will clog, and the water will all go out the holes next door.
In order to actualize irrigation water savings, you have to somehow coordinate with fresh water irrigation so that all the plants are getting watered enough but not too much. This is all but impossible to do with perforated pipe, which will invariably water one small area way too much the rest hardly at all, in a pattern which is constantly changing and invisible if the pipe is buried except in the form of distressed plants. You may be able to tune the pipe slope, hole spacing and size such that each hole spits out the same amount of water along the entire length of the system.
This exercise has been performed by numerous grey water experimenters before you. However, this perfection is very fragile. A series of garden beds with water flowing in gravel underneath is another example. Three, gravel is nasty in the garden Most perforated pipe systems have grave l around them.
Most greywater users are keen gardeners. Gravel is the last thing you want in your garden; it degrades soil and makes digging really difficult.
If you wrap the gravel with filter fabric to contain it, that will clog, as well as turn to lots of bits of plastic trash over time. Preferred practice Use gravelless infiltration galleys or subsurface drip for subsoil distribution.
If you must have perforated pipe, add it as an extension to your septic tank leachfield and filter the grey water through the septic system so the pipe doesn't clog. The preferred practice for reuse is to plumb in such a way that you know with some certainty where the water is going, so you can adjust your supplemental irrigation accordingly.