Diabetic retinopathy: Causes, symptoms, and treatments
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Any laser treatments can then be accurately guided. For around 24 hours after the test, the skin may turn yellowish, and urine dark orange, as the dye exits the body. Optical coherence tomography OCT This noninvasive imaging scan provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, revealing its thickness. After any treatments, scans may be used later to check how effective treatment has been.
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OCT is similar to ultrasound testing but uses light rather than sound to produce images. The scan can also detect diseases of the optic nerve. Treatment options Treating DR depends on several factors, including the severity and type of DR, and how the person with DR has responded to previous treatments.
With NPDR, a doctor may decide to monitor the person's eyes closely without intervening. This is known as watchful waiting. Individuals will need to work with their doctor to control diabetes. Good blood sugar control can significantly slow the development of DR. In most cases of PDR, the patient will require immediate surgical treatment. The following options are available: Focal laser treatment, or photocoagulation The procedure is carried out in a doctor's office or an eye clinic.
Targeted laser burns seal the leaks from abnormal blood vessels. Photocoagulation can either stop or slow down the leakage of blood and buildup of fluid in the eye. People will usually experience blurry vision for 24 hours following focal laser treatment. Small spots may appear in the visual field for a few weeks after the procedure. Scatter laser treatment, or pan-retinal photocoagulation Scattered laser burns are applied to the areas of the retina away from the macula, normally over the course of two or three sessions.
The macula is the area at the center of the retina in which vision is strongest.
Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema
The laser burns cause abnormal new blood vessels to shrink and scar. Most patients require two or three sessions for the best results. Individuals may have blurry vision for 24 hours following the procedure, and there may be some loss of night vision or peripheral vision. Vitrectomy This involves the removal some of the vitreous from within the eyeball. The surgeon replaces the clouded gel with a clear liquid or gas.
The body will eventually absorb the gas or liquid. This will create new vitreous to replace the clouded gel that has been removed. Any blood in the vitreous and scar tissue that may be pulling on the retina is removed.
This procedure is performed in a hospital under general or local anesthetic. The retina may also be strengthened and held in position with tiny clamps. After surgery, the patient may have to wear an eye patch to gradually regain use of their eye, which can tire after a vitrectomy.
Involvement of the retina is called diabetic retinopathy, and can lead to blindness. This also depends on how well the disease has been controlled.
Narayana Nethralaya offers comprehensive facilities for the medical and surgical management of diabetic retinopathy. What is diabetic retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is an eye problem that can be caused by either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Retinopathy occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina. The weakened blood vessels may leak fluid and blood.
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Who are at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy? Those with poorly controlled blood sugar levels are at a high risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. In addition, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, anemia, kidney disease and pregnancy can all place a patient at greater risk of suffering from diabetic eye disease.
How frequently should I get my eye examined? If you have diabetes, you should get a yearly examination by your ophthalmologist. Once you develop diabetic retinopathy, your ophthalmologist may advise further investigations or treatment. A periodic follow up as advised by your ophthalmologist is mandatory.
Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy And Macular Edema
The frequency of these follow up visits is decided based on the severity of the disease. What are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy?
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There may be no symptoms in the early stages, especially when the central portion of the retina is not involved. As the retinopathy progresses, you may have: Blurred vision Floaters, which can look like black spots, little threads, or cobwebs Bleeding in the eye causing sudden loss of vision Temporary or permanent loss of vision.
Pain is not a common feature of the disease.