How to Build a Ferrocement Tank (with Pictures) - wikiHow
Some of the oldest evidence of roof catchment systems dates back to Roman times. rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Bombay,. Delhi, Madras, Bangalore,. Hyderabad, . In literacy, females are catching up with males: whereas, from , male literacy . technology, such as ferrocement for storage tanks, pre-stressed cement pipes for mains and PVC. Bamboo Palmyra and Ferro Cement Composite Roofing .. a small water tank, taking advantage of the added roof area. .. (Dates are only an example; actual starting date will need to be discussed once project is presented). http://www. ko-en.info,bangalore,India.
The deficits in lung function shown in both populations could be explained by age and smoking habits. In a follow-up study of these workers Huvinen et al. In addition to chromium, workers were also exposed to nickel and molybdenum. The mean exposure level for the chromium VI group was 0.
The respiratory system in animals is also a primary target for acute- and intermediate-duration inhalation exposure to chromium VI and chromium III.
A decrease in macrophage activity was observed in the 0. Clearance of iron oxide from the lungs decreased in rats exposed to 0.
The decreased clearance of iron oxide correlated with the decrease in macrophage activity Glaser et al. The incidence of both these lesions declined after longer exposure, indicating repair.
Results of bronchoalveolar lavage BAL analysis provided further evidence of an irritation effect that was reversible Glaser et al. The data from the Glaser et al. The BMC of 0. Male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 1. After 90 days, histopathological changes to respiratory tissue included macrophage aggregation and foamy cells, and inflammation of alveolar regions; however, no abnormalities were observed in nasal tissue at 0.
Mice exposed to chromium trioxide mist at concentrations of 1. After 5 days of exposure, BAL was conducted on a subgroup of animals. In rats treated with chromic oxide, a yellow crystalline material was observed in the cytoplasm of mononuclear cells of all exposure groups; however, it is not clear if this observation represents an adverse effect. Increased amounts of cell debris and lysed cells were present in all basic chromium sulfate groups incidence data were not reported.
Histopathological examination of respiratory tissues showed pigmented macrophages containing a dense black substance, presumably the test substance, throughout the terminal bronchioles and alveolar spaces in rats from all treatment groups; this finding is consistent with normal physiological clearance mechanisms for particulates deposited in the lung and is not considered to be adverse.
No lesions were observed in the nasal cavity. In rats treated with basic chromium sulfate, a dose-related increase in absolute and relative lungs weights was observed in all treatment groups.
Histopathological examination of respiratory tract tissues revealed chronic inflammation of the lung characterized by cell infiltration and debris in alveolar spaces and intense inflammation and alveolar wall hyperplasia in all treatment groups.
In addition, inflammation and suppurative and mucoid exudates of nasal tissues and granulomatous inflammation of the larynx were observed in all treatment groups. Incidence data for histopathological findings were not reported.
Following the week recovery period for rats treated with basic chromium sulfate, enlargement of the mediastinal lymph node was observed on gross necropsy in all treatment groups. Results of this study demonstrate differences in the respiratory effects of inhaled chromium oxide and inhaled basic chromium sulfate. Effects of soluble basic chromium sulfate were more severe and were observed throughout the respiratory tract, while effects of chromic oxide were more mild and limited to the lung; these observations may be related to differences in chemical-physical properties of the test compounds.
Data from the Derelanko et al. Since soluble and insoluble chromium III compounds exhibited different effects in the respiratory tract, distinct intermediate-duration MRLs were derived for insoluble and soluble trivalent chromium particulates.
Pulmonary fluid from hamsters exposed to 0. Histological examination revealed alterations representing mild nonspecific irritation but no morphological damage Henderson et al. In rabbits exposed to 0.
Macrophage morphology demonstrated black inclusions and large lysosomes. These changes represent normal physiological responses of the macrophages to the chromium particle. Phagocytosis and the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium to formazan was impaired by chromium IIIindicating a decrease in the functional and metabolic activity of the macrophage Johansson et al. Chronic exposure to chromium VI compounds and mixtures of chromium VI and chromium III compounds have also resulted in adverse respiratory effects in animals.
Experiments in which rats were exposed to either chromium VI alone as sodium dichromate or a 3: However, histopathology of rats exposed to 0. Mice exposed to 4. Histopathology revealed epithelial necrosis and marked hyperplasia of the large and medium bronchi, with numerous openings in the bronchiolar walls Nettesheim and Szakal Significantly increased incidences of pulmonary lesions lung abscesses, bronchopneumonia, giant cells, and granulomata were found in rats exposed chronically to a finely ground, mixed chromium roast material that resulted in airborne concentrations of 1.
In the same study, guinea pigs exposed chronically to the chromium roast material along with mists of potassium dichromate or sodium chromate solutions that also resulted in 1. Similarly, rabbits were also exposed and also had pulmonary lesions similar to those seen in the rats and guinea pigs, but the number of rabbits was too small for meaningful statistical analysis Steffee and Baetjer In the only study of chromium IV exposure, all rats treated with 0.
Lung weight was increased at 12 and 24 months in the The increased lung weight and macrophage effects probably represent the increased lung burden of chromium dioxide dust and normal physiological responses of macrophages to dust. Information regarding cardiovascular effects in humans after inhalation exposure to chromium and its compounds is limited.
No abnormalities were found Sassi No excess deaths were observed from cardiovascular diseases and ischemic heart disease in a cohort of 4, stainless steel production workers from to when compared to expected deaths based on national rates and matched for age, sex, and calendar time Moulin et al.
No measurements of exposure were provided. Cardiovascular function was studied in middle-aged workers involved in potassium dichromate production who had clinical manifestations of chromium poisoning 96 with respiratory effects and with gastrointestinal disorders and in a control group of 70 healthy workers of similar age. Both groups with clinical manifestations had changes in the bioelectric and mechanical activity of the myocardium as determined by electrocardiography, kinetocardiography, rheocardiography, and ballistocardiography.
These changes were more pronounced in the workers with respiratory disorders due to chromium exposure than in the workers with chromium-induced gastrointestinal effects. For intermediate-duration exposures, no histopathological changes to the heart were observed in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 1.
No histopathological lesions were found in the hearts of rats exposed chronically to chromium dioxide at Additional information regarding cardiovascular effects in animals after exposure to chromium or chromium compounds was not located. Gastrointestinal effects have been associated with occupational exposure of humans to chromium compounds. In a report of two cases of acute exposure to "massive amounts" of chromium trioxide fumes, the patients complained of abdominal or substernal pain, but further characterization was not provided Meyers In a NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation of an electroplating facility in the United States, 5 of 11 workers reported symptoms of stomach pain, 2 of duodenal ulcer, 1 of gastritis, 1 of stomach cramps, and 1 of frequent indigestion.
The workers were employed for an average of 7. These workers were not compared to a control group. An otolaryngological examination of 77 employees of eight chromium electroplating facilities in Czechoslovakia, where the mean level in the breathing zone above the plating baths was 0. In a study of 97 workers from a chromate plant exposed to a mixture of insoluble chromite ore containing chromium III and soluble chromium VI as sodium chromate and dichromate, gastrointestinal radiography revealed that 10 of the workers had ulcer formation, and of these, 6 had hypertrophic gastritis.
Nearly all of the workers breathed through the mouth while at work and swallowed the chromate dust, thereby directly exposing the gastrointestinal mucosa. Only two cases of gastrointestinal ulcer were found in 41 control individuals, who had the same racial, social, and economic characteristics as the chromium-exposed group Mancuso The ulcers were considered to be due to exposure to chromium Sassi Gastric mucosa irritation leading to duodenal ulcer was found in 21 of 90 workers engaged in the production of chromium salts.
Symptoms of gastrointestinal pathology appeared about 3—5 years after the workers' initial contact Sterekhova et al. Most of these studies reporting gastrointestinal effects did not compare the workers with appropriate controls. Although the gastrointestinal irritation and ulceration due to exposure to chromium VI in air could be due to a direct action of chromium VI on the gastrointestinal mucosa from swallowing chromium as a result of mouth breathing or transfer via hand-to-mouth activityother factors, such as stress and diet, can also cause gastrointestinal effects.
While occupational exposure to chromium VI may result in gastrointestinal effects, a lower than expected incidence of death from diseases of the digestive tract was found among a cohort of 2, employees who had worked for at least 90 days during the years — in a chromium production plant in Baltimore, Maryland, and were followed until In contrast to findings with chromium VI compounds, no indication was found that exposure to chromium III resulted in stomach disorders in workers employed in two factories that produced chromium III oxide or chromium III sulfate Korallus et al.
Information regarding gastrointestinal effects in animals after inhalation exposure to chromium or its compounds is limited. In mice exposed intermittently to 4. No treatment-related histopathological lesions were found in the stomach, large intestine, duodenum, jejunum, or ileum of rats chronically exposed to chromium dioxide at Hematological evaluations of workers occupationally exposed to chromium compounds have yielded equivocal results.
Ninety-seven workers from a chromate plant were exposed to a mixture of insoluble chromite ore containing chromium III and soluble sodium chromate and dichromate. Hematological evaluations revealed leukocytosis in The leukocytosis appeared to be related primarily to monocytosis and eosinophilia, but controls had slight increases in monocytes and occasional increases in eosinophils without leukocytosis.
Decreases in hemoglobin concentrations and slight increases in bleeding time were also observed Mancuso Whether these hematological findings were significantly different from those seen in controls was not stated, but the effects were attributed to chromium exposure.
In an extensive survey to determine the health status of chromate workers in seven U. The sedimentation rate of red cells was higher than that of controls, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Likewise, no effects on red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, or sedimentation rate were found in a case control study of 17 male manual metal arc stainless steel welders from six industries with mean occupational durations of 20 years Littorin et al.
The relationship between serum and urine chromium levels and blood hemoglobin was examined in workers exposed to chromium III at a tannery plant in Leon, Mexico Kornhauser et al. Blood chromium levels of 0. Results indicate a potential effect of chromium III exposure on hemoglobin; however, due to small group size, definitive conclusions cannot be made.
Results from hematological evaluations in rats yielded conflicting results. Hematological effects were observed in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chromium trioxide mist for 90 days; changes included significant decreases in hematocrit at 0. Hematological evaluations of rats exposed to sodium dichromate at 0. The white blood cell counts were not increased 30 days postexposure Glaser et al.
Rats exposed to 0. No changes in hematological parameters were observed in rats exposed to No musculoskeletal effects have been reported in either humans or animals after inhalation exposure to chromium. Chromium VI has been reported to cause severe liver effects in four of five workers exposed to chromium trioxide in the chrome plating industry. Around to devotees visit this temple on a daily basis.
Thousands of devotees attend the annual Krishna and Balarama Rath Yatra. The temple remains open from 7: A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. The planetarium is a sky theatre with a dome of 15 meters in diameter. Around people can be seated at a time. It provides an awareness of astronomy among the students and the common public.
The shows are a combination of entertainment and instructions. The narration, music and the sound effects creates among the viewers a sense of total participation. Besides offering information on science related subjects these programs focuses on historical backgrounds, modem developments and future prospects. Cartoons, video clippings, Paintings, Computer animations, and special effects are used in the programs.
Science Park is another attraction of the Jawaharlal Nehru planetarium. This park allows one to know about science related subjects in a playful manner. This planetarium is also popular for its Aquarium, which has large varsity of marine life in it. Designed in the 18th century by the Mysore Ruler, Hyder Ali; this botanical garden is located in a acre of land on the southern fringes of the city.
The LalBagh Botanical Garden has about 1, species of flora.16 - Ferro-Cement Tank Building for Drink Water Storage
Most of the tropical plants of the garden were once brought by Tipu Sultan, son of Hyder Ali. Tipu Sultan imported different species of flora from all over the world like Persia, Afghanistan to add to the horticultural wealth of the country. The Lalbagh botanical garden also organizes many flower shows all throughout the year. The other attraction of this garden is the glass house, which was modeled on the popular the London crystal palace. The glass house is surrounded by pencil penders and champaka trees.
Glasshouse is also popular for the annual flower show, which is organized out here. The visitors will also come across the first lawn-clock of India. This clock is surrounded by Snow White and the seven dwarfs, which was a gift to the garden from Hindustan Machine Tools. Lal Bagh Rock displayed here is one of the oldest rock formations on earth. This rock formation is about million years old. Lumbini Gardens Lumbini Gardens is a wave pool with an artificial beach.
The pool provides the best and safest form of entertainment. The pool is situated in an area of 12, square feet. A modern filtration plant is used to maintain the quality of water in the pool.
Seshadri Iyer served as a Dewan of Mysore from to As the memorial is constructed in red bricks, the whole building looks red. The statue of Seshadri Iyer can be seen in a small rose garden which was put up in the year A State Central Library was set up inside the Memorial in the year It is located on the Airport Road just behind Kemp Fort. In fact, this huge temple was built by the Melwanis, the owners of Kemp Fort. The Melwanis run a large number of charitable institutions in Bangalore.
The statue shows Shiva in a seating posture, instead of the regular Lingam that is found in every other Shiva temple. The statue is white in color and shows Lord Shiva sitting in a lotus position or rather in a yoga posture Padmasan. He has four hands.
The front two hands are placed on his lap with the fingers interlocked. The hands at the back are equipped with a 'damaru' and a 'trishul' or trident. In fact, the Shiva Statue in Bangalore is the largest statue of the Lord in the whole world. The background has been made to look as if it is Kailash. The River Ganga flows from the entangled rocks. The statute looks majestic during the night when it is lighted. The whole area and the statue give the visitors a picture which clearly depicts the fabulous fable which is related to it.
Two of the main attractions here are the holy cave and the wishing pool. The unique architecture of the structure was designed according to the principles of 'vastukala' and astronomy. The Gangadhareswara Cave Temple in Bangalore is carved out of a single block of stone. The most striking feature of the Gangadhareswara Cave Temple is the set of four monolithic pillars, which bears the emblem of the Shaivites.
These include the 'trishul' or trident, the 'damara', the 'suryapana' and the 'chandrapana'. These pillars are located in the courtyard of the temple. Another attraction of the temple is the idol of Lord Agni or the Fire God. The idol is a rare piece and is worth taking a look.
Besides these, you can take a look at the statue of Shakthi Ganapati with twelve hands. This statue is located on the left hand side of the temple doorway. The chief attractions of the Gavi Gangadhareshvara temple are the Granite Pillars two of which support mammoth discs representing the sun and the moon, while the other two have a Nandi figure at the top. On the auspicious occasion of Makar Sankranti, the temple witnesses a unique phenomenon when the evening sun's rays passes through an arch between the horns of Nandi and falls directly on the linga inside the cave, thereby lighting up the idol inside.
It is a phenomenon that is proof of the technical excellence of ancient architects, of their knowledge of astronomy combined with great architectural skill. Mary's Basilica first came up as a small chapel in courtesy French missionary Abbe Dubois. In Reverend Kleiner transformed this humble structure into a magnificent Gothic style church by adorning it with decorative stained glass imported from Europe.
Mary's Basilica church boasts of an elegant interior with stained-glass windows, multiple columns with rich Corinthian capital supporting stately arches. In ancient days, there was a well known ritual of parading the image of Virgin Mary in the streets. Once, this procession was stoned by a radical sect. Miraculously, the people who were involved in this condemnable act were struck by cholera and died of the disease.
At one point of time, it was decided that the statue of Virgin Mary would be shifted to another part of the St Basilica Church in Bangalore. But the Statue could not literally be removed from its place. Hence, it still stands in its original place. Due to these miracles, St. In September each year, lakhs of devotees, dressed in saffron, gather here to celebrate St Mary's Feast. It is now converted to a museum. The building of the palace was started by Hyder Ali and it was completed by Tipu Sultan.
The construction of the Palace was completed in the year and it took ten years to plan and construct the palace. The Palace was one of Tipu Sultan's summer retirements. It is a double storied flowery wooden structure. It has columns, curves and balconies which are laid with gardens on both sides of the path which leads to the palace. The name inscribed by him on the wooden banisters of the palace can be seen by the visitors even today.
What exists today are the wonderfully cusped rosewood arches that rise above the fluted stone pillars and the beautiful frescos, painted elaborately on the ceilings and walls of the palace. Although the palace was previously painted in the elaborate style of the Daria Daulat palace, now the arches and ceilings, made of expensive rosewood have been painted with dark-brown enamel paint.
This gives the interior of the palace a rather sober look than warm. However, the delicate and serene white flowers painted on a warm brick-red background cover the walls like a bright carpet. Also the raised frieze of gold flowers and leaves on the plain white base of the borders are a feast to the eyes. Ulsoor Lake Ulsoor Lake is centrally located. It is spread over an area of 1.
There are 2 springs which exists at the bottom of the lake. These springs are now covered with heavy silt. Dotted with a number of little islands, the Ulsoor Lake in Bangalore not only attracts the tourists because of its splendid beauty but for a wonderful experience of boating in the lake.
The lake is a famous tourist spot. Please note that Ulsoor Lake is not fit for swimming because weeds and the lotus under the water often twine around the legs pulls one down. It exhibits some of the rich art of Bangalore. The Art Gallery is comprised of two floors and displays paintings. On the ground floor of the museum you will come across beautiful paintings by the famous painter K. He was born in the year to a family of court painters. On the first floor of Venkatappa Art Gallery you will come across great works of eminent painters like M.
You will also come across a section which is dedicated to C. In the second floor of the Venkatappa Art Gallery you can praise the works of K.
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His wonderful paintings on elements like Jala waterPrithivi the earthSea Shore, Vayu the windNagamandala, Agni fireand Death are very famous. With its intricate carvings and unique architecture, this temple has become an epitome of India's art and culture. Some of the best characteristics of the Dravidian temple art are depicted in the temple. The beautiful stone pillar which is supported by lion brackets was ruined by the cannon balls during the third Mysore War in the year - The flowery stone pillars which are supported by lion brackets have imprints of the cannon balls which struck it.
After the fall of Tipu Sultan inthe kings of the Wodiyar dynasty carried out extensive restoration work on the temple to bring it back to its former look. Maharaja Chikka Krishna Devaraya performed a thanksgiving religious ceremony in this very temple when he took over Tipu Sultan's palace in Numerous devotees and tourist come everyday to the Venkataramana Swamy Temple not only to offer prayers but also to take a look at this historic monument and marvel at its beautiful carvings and architecture.
The building is constructed entirely on the Indian style of architecture. All the four corners have four domes.
HEALTH EFFECTS - Toxicological Profile for Chromium - NCBI Bookshelf
The main entranceway is eclipsed by the four headed lion. The lion is the symbolic representation of Indian sovereignty. The Vidhana Soudha has twenty two departments and three hundred rooms.