Book of Esther - Wikipedia
in the dating of the composition of the Book of Ester," VT 50 (20 pp. , and to of the Babylonian design tions; months are generally assigned a Hebrew ordinal (though tra Also available online - ko-en.info Vetus Testamentum LIII, 3. Read the Bible Online · Reading Plans · Frequently Asked Questions · Resources The earliest date for the book would be shortly after the events narrated, i.e., c. Internal evidence also suggests that the festival of Purim had been observed for the absence of Greek words and the style of the author's Hebrew dialect. The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third . A royal decree is issued throughout the kingdom to slay all Jews on that date. .. Online Bible at ko-en.info · The Book of Esther Full text, KJV, ( also available at Arabic); Esther in the NAB · Esther NRSV translation with photos of.
During the feast, she asks them to attend a further feast the next evening. Meanwhile, Haman is again offended by Mordecai and, at his wife's suggestion, has a gallows built to hang him. That night, Ahasuerus cannot sleep, and orders the court records be read to him.
He is reminded that Mordecai interceded in the previous plot against his life, and discovers that Mordecai never received any recognition. Just then, Haman appears to request the King's permission to hang Mordecai, but before he can make this request, Ahasuerus asks Haman what should be done for the man that the King wishes to honor. Assuming that the King is referring to Haman himself, Haman suggests that the man be dressed in the King's royal robes and led around on the King's royal horse, while a herald calls: To his surprise and horror, the King instructs Haman to do so to Mordecai.
Immediately after, Ahasuerus and Haman attend Esther's second banquet. The King promises to grant her any request, and she reveals that she is Jewish and that Haman is planning to exterminate her people, including her. Overcome by rage, Ahasuerus leaves the room; meanwhile Haman stays behind and begs Esther for his life, falling upon her in desperation. The King returns in at this very moment and thinks Haman is assaulting the queen; this makes him angrier and he orders Haman hanged on the very gallows that Haman had prepared for Mordecai.
Unable to annul a formal royal decree, the King instead adds to it, permitting the Jews to join together and destroy any and all of those seeking to oppress them. On 13 Adar, Haman's ten sons and other men are killed in Shushan. Upon hearing of this Esther requests it be repeated the next day, whereupon more men are killed. Over 75, people are slaughtered by the Jews, who are careful to take no plunder.
Mordecai and Esther send letters throughout the provinces instituting an annual commemoration of the Jewish people's redemption, in a holiday called Purim lots. Ahasuerus remains very powerful and continues his reign, with Mordecai assuming a prominent position in his court.
According to the Talmud, it was a redaction by the Great Assembly of an original text by Mordecai. It is dated around the late 2nd to early 1st century BC. A Latin version of Esther was produced by Jerome for the Vulgate.
It translates the Hebrew Esther but interpolates translations of the Greek Esther where the latter provides additional material. Cooganthe book contains specific details regarding certain subject matter for example, Persian rule which are historically inaccurate. For example, Coogan discusses an apparent inaccuracy regarding the age of Esther's cousin or, according to others, uncle Mordecai. If this refers to Mordecai, he would have had to live over a century to have witnessed the events described in the Book of Esther.
Much of this debate relates to the importance of distinguishing history and fiction within biblical texts, as Berlin argues, in order to gain a more accurate understanding of the history of the Israelite people.
The story told in the book of Esther takes place during the rule of Ahasuerus, who amongst others has been identified as the 5th-century Persian king Xerxes I reigned — BC. Yamauchi has questioned the reliability of other historical sources, such as Herodotusto which Esther has been compared.
Yamauchi wrote, "[Herodotus] was, however, the victim of unreliable informants and was not infallible. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. During the feast, she asks them to attend a further feast the next evening. Meanwhile, Haman is again offended by Mordecai's refusal to bow to him; egged on by his wife Zeresh and unidentified friends, he builds a gallows for Mordecai, with the intention to hang him there the very next day.
Ahasuerus asks whether anything was done for Mordecai and is told that he received no recognition for saving the king's life. Just then, Haman appears, and King Ahasuerus asks him what should be done for the man that the king wishes to honor. Thinking that the king is referring to Haman himself, Haman says that the honoree should be dressed in the king's royal robes and led around on the king's royal horse.
To Haman's horror, the king instructs Haman to render such honors to Mordecai. Ahasuerus becomes enraged and instead orders Haman hanged on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. The previous decree against the Jewish people could not be annulled, so the King allows Mordecai and Esther to write another decree as they wish. They decree that Jewish people may preemptively kill those thought to pose a lethal risk.
As a result, on 13 Adar, five hundred attackers and Haman's ten sons are killed in Shushan. Throughout the empire 75, of the Jewish peoples' enemies are killed. No spoils are taken. He follows the Hebrew Book of Esther but shows awareness of some of the additional material found in the Greek version the Septuagint in that he too identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes and provides the text of the king's letter. He also provides additional information on the dating of events relative to Ezra and Nehemiah.
It too follows the original biblical account and includes additional traditions matching those found in the Greek version and Josephus whom the author claims as a source with the exception of the details of the letters found in the latter works.
ESTHER, BOOK OF – Encyclopaedia Iranica
It also provides other contextual information relating to Jewish and Persian history such as the identification of Darius the Mede as the uncle and father-in-law of Cyrus. He also mentions the woman's daughter, Khumay, who is not known in Jewish tradition but is well remembered in Persian folklore.
Al-Tabari calls her Khumani and tells how her father Ardashir Bahman married her. Ferdowsi in his Shahnameh c. McCullough, Muhammad Dandamayev and Shaul Shaked say that the Book of Esther despite its accurate details of the Achaemenid court[ citation needed ] is historical fiction.
Book of Esther
David Sperling and R. Littman say that, according to Herodotus, Xerxes could only marry a daughter of one of the six allies of his father Darius I. It is dated to the fourth century BCE  and according to the Talmud was a redaction by the Great Assembly of an original text by Mordechai.
The accompanying Tosefta redacted in the same period and Gemara in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmud redacted c. The work Esther Rabbah is a Midrashic text divided in two parts. The first part dated to c. The second part may have been redacted as late as the eleventh century CE and contains commentary on the remaining chapters of Esther.
It too contains the additional contextual material found in the Josippon a chronicle of Jewish history from Adam to the age of Titus believed to have been written by Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion. Hallel is not recited. A special prayer " Al ha-Nissim "—"For the Miracles" is inserted into the Amidah prayers during evening, morning and afternoon prayer services, and is also included in the Birkat Hamazon "Grace after Meals. Originally this enactment was for the 14th of Adar only; later, however, Rabbi Joshua ben Levi 3rd century CE prescribed that the Megillah should also be read on the eve of Purim.
Further, he obliged women to attend the reading of the Megillah, because women were also part of the miracle. The commentaries offer two approaches to the role of women in the miracle. The first is that it was a lady, Queen Estherthrough whom the miraculous deliverance of the Jews was accomplished Rashbam. The Jews are given permission to kill their enemies. On the day originally appointed for the massacre of the Jews, the latter set out to kill those who would have killed them.
In commemoration of these events, a public feast is declared for the Jews, the feast of Purim, a word signifying the casting of lots. There is no corroboration for the events of the book in the available historical sources, and doubts have been expressed as to its veracity. Among the theories propounded to account for the story, some have tried to explain it as an allegory based on mythological stories, Babylonian or Elamite, but such explanations do not carry conviction. It is perhaps best to assume that the book is based on a popular theme of intrigues at the royal court and a miraculous escape, although it cannot be excluded that it does contain a kernel of historical reality.
Purim - Wikipedia
Another story of events at a royal court, probably composed at about the same time, is contained in the Book of Daniel, where a danger threatening individuals is miraculously averted. A fragment of a story of events in the court of a Persian king is preserved among the Dead Sea scrolls, but the outline of that story is unclear cf.
A prominent feature in the book is its skillful use of the narrative art. The Book of Esther is based, if not on events that actually took place, at least on a good knowledge of customs at the Achaemenid royal court as perceived by people who lived at a time and place not far removed from it. The Hebrew language of the book displays a fairly late form of the language, and contains a substantial number of loan-words from Persian.
Some of the proper names occurring in the book are clearly Persian. A list of the names of the ten sons of Haman given in the book, and a list of eunuchs in the court contain several further Iranian names.