Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh - Wikipedia
Joanna (6 November – 12 April ), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Spanish: Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from , and of Aragon from Modern Spain evolved from the union of these two crowns. Joanna was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of . Joanna's father, Ferdinand II, lost his monarchical status in Castile although. Philip II was King of Spain (–98), King of Portugal King of Naples and Sicily ( both from .. The date of Charles' abdication of the throne of Sicily is uncertain, but Philip was invested with this kingdom (officially Fernández Álvarez, in España y los españoles en la Edad Moderna (Salamanca, ), points out how . Ferdinand II called the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon from until his Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand 1 Biography Use dmy dates from November · Articles containing Aragonese-language text · Articles containing.
Other buildings had been constructed with interior courtyards fronting on churches or chapels; King's College, Cambridgedating fromis one such example; the old Ospedale MaggioreMilan 's first hospital, begun in by Antonio Filareteis another grid-like building with interior courtyards. In fact, palaces of this approximate design were commonplace in the Byzantine and Arab world. Nonetheless, the most persuasive theory for the origin of the floor plan is that it is based on descriptions of the Temple of Solomon by the Judeo-Roman historian, Flavius Josephus: Statues of David and Solomon on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial lend further weight to the theory that this is the true origin of the design.
A more personal connection can be drawn between the David-warrior figure, representing Charles Vand his son, the stolid and solomonically prudent Philip II. Beyond being a monastery, El Escorial is also a pantheon, a basilica, a convent, a school, a library, and a royal palace.
All these functional demands resulted in a doubling of the building's size from the time of its original conception. Built primarily from locally quarried gray granite, square and sparsely ornamented, El Escorial is austere, even forbidding, in its outward appearance, seemingly more like a fortress than a monastery or palace.
It takes the form of a gigantic quadrangle, approximately m by m, which encloses a series of intersecting passageways and courtyards and chambers. At each of the four corners is a square tower surmounted by a spire, and, near the center of the complex and taller than the rest rise the pointed belfries and round dome of the basilica. Philip's instructions to Toledo were simple and clear, directing that the architects should produce "simplicity in the construction, severity in the whole, nobility without arrogance, majesty without ostentation.
Giambattista Castello designed the magnificent main staircase. Sections of the building[ edit ] In order to describe the parts of the great building in a coherent fashion, it may be useful to undertake an imaginary walking tour, beginning with the main entrance at the center of the western facade: Courtyard of the Kings[ edit ] Courtyard of the Kings and the Basilica.
This has three doors: This spectacular basilica has a floor in the shape of a Greek cross and an enormous cupola inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The naves are covered with canyon vaults decorated with frescoes by Luca Giordano.
The large chapel is one of the highlights in the basilica, presided by steps of red marble. Its main altarpiece is 30 meters high and divided in compartments of different sizes where are find bronze sculptures and canvas authored by Tibaldi, Zuccari or Leoni.
Under the royal chapel of the Basilica is the Royal Pantheon. This is the place of burial for the kings of Spain. The remains of Juan de Borbon, father of King Juan Carlos I of Spainalso rest in this pantheon despite the fact that he never became king himself.
The enclosure is presided over by an altar of veined marble, and the sarcaphogi are bronze and marble. This part was built in the nineteenth century. After the basilica is the Courtyard of the Evangelists. This is a gardened patio in whose center rises a magnificent pavilion by Juan de Herrera in which one can find sculptures of the Evangelists. Around the courtyard are the galleries of the main cloister, decorated with frescoes in which scenes from the history of the Redemption are represented.
In the East gallery, one finds the splendid main staircase with a fresco-decorated vaulted ceiling depicting The glory of the Spanish monarchy. The outbuildings of this palace are distributed around the Courtyard of the Fountainheads patio de los Mascaronesof Italian style. Basilica[ edit ] Dome of the Basilica of El Escorial The basilica of San Lorenzo el Real, the central building in the El Escorial complex, was originally designed, like most of the late Gothic cathedrals of western Europe, to take the form of a Latin cross.
This plan was modified by Juan de Herrera to that of a Greek crossa form with all four arms of equal length. Coincident with this shift in approach, the bell towers at the western end of the church were somewhat reduced in size and the small half-dome intended to stand over the altar was replaced with a full circular dome over the center of the church, where the four arms of the Greek cross meet. However, the Roman dome is supported by ranks of tapered Corinthian columns, with their extravagant capitals of acanthus leaves and their elaborately fluted shafts, while the dome at El Escorial, soaring nearly one hundred metres into the air, is supported by four heavy granite piers connected by simple Romanesque arches and decorated by simple Doric pilasters, plain, solid, and largely unprepossessing.
It would not be a flight of fancy to interpret St. Peter's as the quintessential expression of Baroque sensuality and the basilica at El Escorial as a statement of the stark rigidity and grim purposefulness of the Inquisitionthe two sides of the Counter-Reformation.
The most highly decorated part of the church is the area surrounding the high altar. Behind the altar is a three-tiered reredosor altar screen, made of red granite and jaspernearly twenty-eight metres tall, adorned with gilded bronze statuary by Leone Leoniand three sets of religious paintings commissioned by Philip II. To either side are gilded life-size bronzes of the kneeling family groups of Charles and Philip, also by Leoni with help from his son Pompeo.
In a shallow niche at the center of the lowest level is a repository for the physical elements of the communion ceremony, a so-called "House of the Sacrament", designed by Juan de Herrera in jasper and bronze. To decorate the reredos, the king's preferences were Michelangelo or Titianbut both of these giants were already more than eighty years old and in frail health. It features a window from which the king could observe mass from his bed when incapacitated by the gout that afflicted him.
Hall of Battles[ edit ] Fresco paintings here depict the most important Spanish military victories. These include a medieval victory over the Moors, as well as several of Philip's campaigns against the French. Pantheon of the Kings[ edit ] This chamber consists of twenty-six marble sepulchers containing the remains of the kings and queens regnant the only queen regnant since Philip II being Isabella IIof the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties from Charles I to the present, except for Philip V and Ferdinand VI.
The sepulchers also contain the remains of royal consorts who were parents of monarchs. The remains of Alfonso XIII's third son Juan, Count of Barcelona and daughter-in-law Maria de las Mercedes the father and mother of the former king Juan Carlos Ilie at a prepared place called a pudridero, or decaying chamber, awaiting interment in the Pantheon of the Kings.
With the interment of these remains, all the sepulchers in the pantheon will be filled. There are two pudrideros at El Escorial, one for the Pantheon of the Kings and the other for the Pantheon of the Princes.
These can only be visited by monks from the Monastery. In these rooms, the remains of the deceased are placed in a small leaden urn, which in turn will be placed in the marble sepulchers of the appropriate pantheon after the passage of fifty years, the estimated time necessary for the complete decomposition of the bodies.
The interment of the remains of Queen Victoria Eugenie and the Count and Countess of Barcelona in the Royal Pantheon will each constitute an exception to tradition.
First, Victoria Eugenie, although the wife of a king, was never the mother of a king in the strict sense. Secondly, the Count of Barcelona never reigned as king, although he was head of the Spanish Royal Family between the renunciation of his father's rights on 14 January and his renunciation of his own rights in favour of his son, Juan Carlos I on 14 May Thirdly, the Countess of Barcelona was the mother of a king but not the wife of a king.
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However, some consider the Count of Barcelona to have been de jure King of Spain from -which in turn would make him, his mother, Queen Victoria Eugenie and his wife, the Countess of Barcelona eligible for interment in the Pantheon of Kings. There has already been one exception to tradition: Elisabeth of Bourbon is for the moment the only queen in the pantheon who has not been mother to a king. That is because her only son, the presumed heir to the throne, died after her but before he could become king.
The walls of polished Toledo marble are ornamented in gold-plated bronze. Wooden model of the roof Pantheon of the Princes[ edit ] Completed inthis is the final resting place of princes, princesses and consorts other than the parents of monarchs. With floors and ceiling of white marble, the tomb of Prince John of Austria is especially notable. One of the notable artists from Phillip II's court was Sofonisba Anguissolawho gained fame for her talent and unusual role as a woman artist.
She was invited to the court of Madrid in and was chosen to become an attendant to Isabella Clara Eugenia — Anguissola also became a lady-in-waiting and court painter for the queen, Elizabeth de Valois. During her time as a court painter, Anguissola painted many official portraits of the royal family, a sharp departure from her previous personal portraits.
This debt caused Phillip II to default on loans in,and including debt to Poland, known as Neapolitan sums. Lenders had no power over the King and could not force him to repay his loans. These defaults were just the beginning of Spain's economic troubles as its kings would default six more times in the next 65 years.
This made Spain and its possessions difficult to rule, unlike France, which while divided into regional states, had a single Estates-General.
The lack of a viable supreme assembly led to power defaulting into Philip II's hands, especially as manager and final arbiter of the constant conflict between different authorities.
To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation, authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carrying out crown instructions. Philip II felt it necessary to be involved in the detail, and he presided over specialised councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition. Philip II played groups against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that managed affairs inefficiently, even to the extent of damaging state business, as in the Perez affair.
Following a fire in Valladolid inhe resisted calls to move his Court to Lisbonan act that could have curbed centralisation and bureaucracy domestically as well as relaxed rule in the Empire as a whole. Instead, with the traditional Royal and Primacy seat of Toledo now essentially obsolete, he moved his Court to the Castilian stronghold of Madrid.
The works, which lasted from untilwere done by tradesmen that came from the NetherlandsItalyand France. King Philip II ruled at a critical turning point in European history toward modernity whereas his father Charles V had been forced to an itinerant rule as a medieval king.
Pope John Paul II - Wikipedia
He mainly directed state affairs, even when not at Court. Indeed, when his health began failing, he worked from his quarters at the Palace-Monastery-Pantheon of El Escorial that he had built ina palace built as a monument to Spain's role as a center of the Christian world.
But Philip did not enjoy the supremacy that King Louis XIV of France would in the next century, nor was such a rule necessarily possible at his time. The inefficiencies of the Spanish state and the restrictively regulated industry under his rule were common to many contemporary countries. Further, the dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada — motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim invasion — had serious negative effects on the economy, particularly in that region.
Foreign policy[ edit ] Engraving of Philip II Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic objectives.
He considered himself the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation. He never relented from his fight against heresydefending the Catholic faith and limiting freedom of worship within his territories.
Philip IV of Spain - Wikipedia
Following the Revolt of the Netherlands inPhilip waged a campaign against Dutch heresy and secession. This series of conflicts lasted for the rest of his life. Philip's constant involvement in European wars took a significant toll on the treasury and caused economic difficulties for the Crown and even bankruptcies. Inthe English defeated Philip's Spanish Armadathwarting his planned invasion of the country to reinstate Catholicism.
But war with England continued for the next sixteen years, in a complex series of struggles that included France, Ireland and the main battle zone, the Low Countries. It would not end until all the leading protagonists, including himself, had died.
Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto inwith the allied fleet of the Holy Leaguewhich he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria. He also successfully secured his succession to the throne of Portugal. These surveys helped the Spanish monarchy to govern these overseas conquests more effectively. The date of Charles' abdication of the throne of Sicily is uncertain, but Philip was invested with this kingdom officially "Sicily and Jerusalem" on 18 November by Julius.
According to Philip II, he was doing it for the benefit of the Church. His Majesty could not do otherwise than have a care for his reputation and dominions. I am sure your Highness will have had more recent news from the Duke of Alva, who has taken the field with an excellent army and has penetrated so far into the Pope's territory that his cavalry is raiding up to ten miles from Rome, where there is such panic that the population would have run away had not the gates been closed.
The Pope has fallen ill with rage, and was struggling with a fever on the 16th of this month. The two Carafa brothers, the Cardinal and Count Montorio, do not agree, and they and Piero Strozzi are not on as good terms as they were in the past. They would like to discuss peace. The best thing would be for the Pope to die, for he is the poison at the root of all this trouble and more which may occur. His Majesty's intention is only to wrest the knife from this madman's hand and make him return to a sense of his dignity, acting like the protector of the Apostolic Seein whose name, and that of the College of Cardinalshis Majesty has publicly proclaimed that he has seized all he is occupying.
The Pope is now sending again to the potentates of Italy for help. I hope he will gain as little thereby as he has done in the past, and that the French will calm down. May God give us peace in the end, as their Majesties desire and deserve! The efforts were later abandoned and the war continued. On 13 SeptemberCardinal Carlo Carafa signed a peace agreement, accepting all of the duke's conditions.
The Spanish army decisively defeated the French at St. Quentin in and at Gravelines in The Pope was a natural Spanish ally[ citation needed ]. The only truly independent entities on Italian soil were the allied Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice.
Spanish control of Italy would last until the early eighteenth century. Ultimately, the treaty ended the year, Franco-Spanish wars for supremacy in Italy. By the end of the wars inHabsburg Spain had been established as the premier power of Europe, to the detriment of France.
In France, Henry II was fatally wounded in a joust held during the celebrations of the peace. His death led to the accession of his year-old son Francis IIwho in turn soon died. The French monarchy was thrown into turmoil, which increased further with the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion that would last for several decades. The states of Italy were reduced to second-rate powers, and Milan and Naples were annexed directly to Spain.
Mary Tudor's death in enabled Philip to seal the treaty by marrying Henry II's daughter, Elisabeth of Valoislater giving him a claim to the throne of France on behalf of his daughter by Elisabeth, Isabel Clara Eugenia. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise Lorraineand both sides received assistance from foreign sources.
However, the treaty was broken shortly afterwards. France and Spain waged war in northern France and Italy over the following years. Spanish victories at St. Victory in Azores completed the incorporation of Portugal into the Spanish Empire. He directly intervened in the final phases of the wars —ordering the Duke of Parma into France in an effort to unseat Henry IVand perhaps dreaming of placing his favourite daughter, Isabel Clara Eugenia, on the French throne.
Elizabeth of Valois, Philip's third wife and Isabella's mother, had already ceded any claim to the French Crown with her marriage to Philip. However the Parlement de Parisin power of the Catholic party, gave verdict that Isabella Clara Eugenia was "the legitimate sovereign" of France. Philip's interventions in the fighting — sending the Duke of Parma, to end Henry IV's siege of Paris in — and the siege of Rouen in contributed in saving the French Catholic Leagues's cause against a Protestant monarchy.
InHenry agreed to convert to Catholicism; weary of war, most French Catholics switched to his side against the hardline core of the Catholic League, who were portrayed by Henry's propagandists as puppets of a foreign monarch, Philip. By the end of certain League members were still working against Henry across the country, but all relied on the support of Spain.
In Januarytherefore, Henry officially declared war on Spain, to show Catholics that Philip was using religion as a cover for an attack on the French state, and Protestants that he had not become a puppet of Spain through his conversion, while hoping to take the war to Spain and make territorial gain. Spain launched a concerted offensive intaking DoullensCambrai and Le Catelet and in the spring of capturing Calais by April.
Following the Spanish capture of Amiens in March the French crown laid siege to it until it managed to reconquer Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September Henry then negotiated a peace with Spain. The war was only drawn to an official close, however, after the Edict of Nanteswith the Peace of Vervins in May The military interventions in France thus failed to oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France, and yet they had played a decisive part in helping the French Catholic cause gain the conversion of Henry, ensuring that Catholicism would remain France's official and majority faith — matters of paramount importance for the devoutly Catholic Spanish king.
Ottoman—Habsburg wars Titian ; after the Battle of Lepanto inPhilip offers his short-lived heir Fernando to Glory in this allegory Standard of the tercios morados of the Spanish army under Philip II In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent.
Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. InTurkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islandsespecially inflicting great damage on Menorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Hayreddin Barbarossa inthe major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venicebecame hesitant in confronting the Ottomans.
The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of ships 60 galleys and other vessels carrying a total of 30, soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Dorianephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria.
On 12 Marchthe Holy League captured the island of Djerbawhich had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman sent an Ottoman fleet of ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 9 May The battle lasted until 14 Mayand the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle won an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba.
The Holy League lost 60 ships 30 galleys and 20, men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria was barely able to escape with a small vessel. In the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Maltawhich laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them.
The Spanish sent a relief force, which finally drove the Ottoman army out of the island. The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto inby the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria.
Nevertheless, Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of Ottoman control.
In a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans. Revolt in the Netherlands[ edit ] Main articles: Infantry and cavalry fighting on a slope. Philip's rule in the Seventeen Provinces known collectively as the Netherlands faced many difficulties, leading to open warfare in He appointed Margaret of Parma as Governor of the Netherlands, when he left the low countries for Spain inbut forced her to adjust policy to the advice of Cardinal Granvellewho was greatly disliked in the Netherlands, after he insisted on direct control over events in the Netherlands despite being over two weeks' ride away in Madrid.
There was discontent in the Netherlands about Philip's taxation demands and the incessant persecution of Protestants. There were massacres of civilians in MechelenNaardenZutphen and Haarlem.