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Many of them brought their Afro-Cuban rumba traditions, and others brought their rumbitas and montunos. It was in Havana where the encounter of the rumba rural and the rumba urbana that had been developing separately during the second half of the 19th century took place. They brought their repertoires of Canciones Cuban songs and boleros that also included rumbas, guarachas and rural rumbitas.
One of those groups, The Apaches, was invited in to a party held by President Mario Menocal at the exclusive Vedado Tennis Club, and that same year some members of the group were reorganized in a quartet named Cuarteto Oriental.
Unexpectedly, a fifth member of the quartet is mentioned.
Inthe Cuarteto Oriental became a sextet and was renamed as Sexteto Habanero. This group established the "classical" configuration of the son sextet composed of guitar, tres, bongos, claves, maracas and double bass. Abelardo Barroso, one of the most famous soneros, joined the group in Popularization began in earnest with the arrival of radio broadcasting inwhich came at the same time as Havana 's reputation as an attraction for Americans evading Prohibition laws.
The city became a haven for the Mafiagambling and prostitution in Cubaand also became a second home for trendy and influential bands from New York City. The son experienced a period of transformation from towhen it evolved from a marginal genre of music to perhaps the most popular type of music in Cuba.
A turning point that made this transformation possible occurred when then-president Machado publicly asked La Sonora Matancera to perform at his birthday party. In addition, the acceptance of son as a popular music genre in other countries contributed to more acceptance of Son in mainstream Cuba. The instrumentation was expanded to include cornets or trumpets, forming the sextets and the septets of the s.
Later these conjuntos added piano, other percussion instruments, more trumpets, and even dance orchestra instruments in the style of jazz big bands. Its development constitutes an example of the process that the trovadores usually followed until they became soneros. The different rhythmic layers of the son style were distributed between their three voices, guitars and maracas.
Cueto plucked the strings of his guitar instead of strumming them as it was usual, providing the patterns of the "guajeo" in the treble range, and the syncopated rhythms of the "tumbao" on the bass strings. The counterpoint was completed by the first guitar, played by Miguel. Inthey traveled to New York with a recording contract by RCA Victor, and his first album caused such a great impact in the public that they soon became very famous at a national as well as an international level.
The sextetos and septetos that had enjoyed wide commercial popularity increasingly lost ground to jazz bands and amplified conjuntos. Original son conjuntos were faced with the option to disband and refocus on newer styles of Cuban music or go back to their roots. He used improvised solos, toques, congasextra trumpets, percussion and pianos, although all these elements had been used previously Papauba — Para bailar son montuno.
He was perhaps the greatest sonero Castellano que bueno baila usted — Vertiente Camaguey ; another important sonero was Roberto Faz. By the late s, son had lost its controversiality even among conservative Cubans which made it even less appealing to Cubans.
The son grew more sophisticated as it was adopted by conjuntos, which displaced sextetos and septetos. This led to big bands replacing the conjuntos, which managed to keep its flavor despite elaborate arrangements.
These bands consisted of a relatively small horn section, piano, double bass, a full array of Cuban percussion instruments and a vocalist fronting the ensemble. Their polished sound and "cosmopolitan" — read "commercial" — repertoire captivated both Cuban and foreign audiences.
The commercialism of this new music movement led Cuban nightclub owners to recognize the revenue potential of hosting these types of bands to attract the growing flow of tourists. He produced another huge concert the following year, with new material.
Music of Cuba - Wikipedia
These shows probably dwarfed anything seen in the island before or since, and no doubt were unforgettable for those who attended. There he met Caturla, at sixteen a second violin. Roldan's compositions included Overture on Cuban themesand two ballets: La Rebambaramba and El milagro de Anaquille There followed a series of Ritmicas and Poema negra and Tres toques march, rites, dance His last composition was two Piezas infantiles for piano Roldan died young, at 38, of a disfiguring facial cancer he had been an inveterate smoker.
His Tres danzas cubanas for symphony orchestra was first performed in Spain in Bembe was premiered in Havana the same year. His Obertura cubana won first prize in a national contest in Caturla was murdered at 34 by a young gambler. In he was one of the founders of the National Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted. In he was appointed Director of the Havana School of Music. As a composer he specialized in the zarzuelaa musical theatre form, very popular up to World War II.
In he co-founded a bufo company comic theatre at the Marti Theatre in Havana. It was premiered in He founded various organizations and wrote frequently on musical topics. He was a prolific composer of songs and music for stage and film. His works consisted of zarzuelaAfro-Cuban and Cuban rhythms, suites and many songs that became Latin standards. During its existence from tothe group organized numerous concerts at the Havana Lyceum in order to present their avant-garde compositions to the general public and fostered within its members the development of many future conductors, art critics, performers and professors.
From then on most musicians have kept their careers on one side of the invisible line or the other. After the Cuban Revolution ina new crop of classical musicians came onto the scene. The most important of these is guitarist Leo Brouwerwho made significant innovations in classical guitar, and is currently the director of the Havana Symphonic Orchestra. His directorship in the early s of the Cuban Institute of Instrumental and Cinematographic Arts ICAIC was instrumental in the formation and consolidation of the nueva trova movement.
Other important composers from the early post-revolution period that began in were: Right row, top to bottom: Closely following the early post-revolution generation, a group of young composers started to attract the attention of the public that attended classical music concerts. Most of them received a solid musical education provided by the official arts school system created by the Cuban government and graduated from the Instituto Superior de Arte ISA. All of them have emigrated and currently live and work in other countries.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message Juan Blanco was the first Cuban composer to create an electroacoustic piece in This first composition, titled "Musica Para Danza", was produced with just an oscillator and three common tape recorders. As a result of the enormous scarcity generated by the Cuban Revolution since its origins inaccess to the necessary technological resources to produce electroacoustic music was always very limited for anyone interested.
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For this reason, it was not until that another Cuban composer, Sergio Barrosodedicated himself to the creation of electroacoustic musical compositions. In this capacity, he created electroacoustic music for all the audiovisual materials produced by ICAP. After nine years working without restitution, Blanco finally obtained financing to set up an Electroacoustic Studio to be used for his work. He was appointed as Director of the Studio, but under the condition that he should be the only one to use the facility.
After a few months, and without asking for permission, he opened the Electroacoustic Studio to all composers interested in working with electroacoustic technology, thus creating the ICAP Electroacoustsic Music Workshop TIMEwhere he himself provided training to all participants.
Classical Guitar in Cuba From the 16th to the 19th century[ edit ] The guitar as it is known today or in one of its historical versions has been present in Cuba since the discovery of the island by Spain. In he performed at a much acclaimed concert in Havana, after returning from Spain. Mungol actively participated in the musical life of Havana and was a professor at the Hubert de Blanck conservatory.
She inaugurated the guitar department at the Havana Municipal Conservatory inwhere she also introduced the teachings of the Cuban folk guitar style.
He also studied the vihuela with Pujol and researched about the guitar's history and literature. This was a nucleus for the later development of a national Cuban Guitar School with which a new generation of guitarists and composers collaborated. The grandson of Ernestina Lecuona, sister of Ernesto Lecuona, Brouwer began studying the guitar with his father and after some time continued with Isaac Nicola.
He taught himself harmony, counterpoint, musical forms and orchestration before completing his studies at the Juilliard School and the University of Hartford. Since the s, several generations of guitar performers, professors and composers have been formed under the Cuban Guitar School at educational institutions such as the Havana Municipal Conservatory, the National School of Arts, and the Instituto Superior de Arte.
Others, such as Manuel Barruecoa concertist of international renown, developed their careers outside the country. Classical piano in Cuba[ edit ] Main article: Classical piano in Cuba Ernesto Lecuona After its arrival in Cuba at the end of the 18th century, the pianoforte commonly called piano rapidly became one of the favorite instruments among the Cuban population. Along with the humble guitar, the piano accompanied the popular Cuban "guarachas" and "contradanzas" derived from the European Country Dances at salons and ballrooms in Havana and all over the country.
Encouraged by the warm welcome, Edelmann decided to stay in Havana, and he was very soon promoted to an important position within the Santa Cecilia Philharmonic Society. Inhe opened a music store and publishing company.
When he graduated from the National Conservatory, he was awarded the First Prize and the Gold Medal of his class by unanimous decision of the board. He is by far the Cuban composer of greatest international recognition and his contributions to the Cuban piano tradition are considered exceptional.
The renaissance viol is the direct ancestor of the modern Italian violins, which began to become popular since the 16th century.
To fulfill his musical duties, Salas counted with a small vocal-instrumental group that included two violins. Apart from his activity as a violinist, Estrada kept a very active musical career as a conductor of numerous orchestras, bands and operas, and composing many contradanzas and other dance pieces, such as minuets and valses.
Vandergutch offered numeorus concerts as a soloist and accompanied by several orchestras, around the midth century.